Standard Essential Patents (SEPs) are patents that form essential parts of a technical standards, which aim to achieve interoperability between different products. In order for technology implementers to adopt these standards, they cannot avoid practicing these SEPs and have to get a license from the SEP owners, which gave the SEP owners bargaining power when negotiating licensing terms. The recent disputes between automaker Daimler, including its suppliers, and telecommunication giant Nokia, stem from this background, wherein Nokia insists to license its telecommunication SEPs to Daimler on the basis of the product (i.e., vehicle) price, instead of the component (i.e., chipset) price, so that Nokia can charge a higher royalty rate. Daimler then accused Nokia for anti-trust conducts, Nokia in turn initiated patent infringement lawsuits in the U.S. and Europe. The legal disputes are still ongoing, and this research vlog aims to provide some observations regarding this topic.
Seven ex vivo calf brain hemispheres were used to develop the 7-T MRI segmentation methodology. Three brains were used to quantitate brain tissue removal using 7-T MRI segmentation methodology. Alginate artificial brain tumor was created in 4 calf brains to assess the ability of 7-T MRI segmentation methodology to quantitate tumor and gray and white matter along with total tissue volumes removal during a subpial tumor resection procedure.
Quantitative studies showed a correlation between removed brain tissue weights and volumes determined from segmented 7-T MRIs. Analysis of baseline and postresection alginate brain tumor segmented 7-T MRIs allowed quantification of tumor and gray and white matter along with total tissue volumes removed and detection of alterations in surrounding gray and white matter.
This pilot study showed that the use of animal tumor models in combination with 7-T MRI technology provides an opportunity to increase the granularity of data obtained from operative procedures and to improve the assessment and training of learners.
3DThree-dimensionalFOVField of viewMRMagnetic resonanceMRIMagnetic resonance imagingROIRegion of interest
7-tesla MRIartificial brain tumourmedical educationobjective quantificationtechnical skills